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Chris Bangle's BMW XCoupe
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» The 2.0 16v Coupe engine
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:: The 2.0 16v Coupe engine

History

The Tipo 2.0ie 16v derives its power from the legendary Fiat twin-cam engine, an engine whose ancestry can be traced back to 1966 and was designed by the automotive engineering genius Aurelio Lampredi. The first eight valve twin-cam produced 90bhp from 1,438cc's (some 20bhp more than comparable pushrod engines of the day) and evolved into a 1995cc sixteen valve 300bhp turbo powerhouse in competition form, winning no less than 10 world championships in one form or another.

Lampredi incorporated many hitherto unseen innovations into his design including the direct acting camshaft for operating the valves, using shimmed "buckets" between cam and valve assembly as a means of adjustment rather than the now de-rigeur (power absorbing) hydraulic adjusters. Also a lightweight aluminium cylinderhead when most were cast iron and con-rods that can only be described as destruction proof !!!

In "Sedicivalvole" form a 1995cc powerplant produces 148bhp @ 6,250rpm and 18Kgm of torque @ 5,000rpm, 16Kgm of this torque being available from 2,500rpm up to 6,000rpm which, when matched to the appropriate gear ratios, produce a car with extreme flexibility and thus drivability. The engine is very similar in specification and power output to the 2 litre unit fitted to the Lancia Thema series 2 in 1988, also utilizing counter rotating balancer shafts to counteract the inherent imbalance of the in-line four cylinder engine and thus produce a much smoother if very slightly less responsive power unit.


Specifications

The basic design of the engine remained the same between the 5 and 3 door Tipo
models. However the power and torque characteristics changed slightly. In
the 3 door model the engine was detuned slightly which reduced ultimate
bhp but provided more torque at lower revs. In the Coupe, the high-torque version of the egine was used.


Tipo 16v 5-door Coupe 16v
Cylinders 4-cycle, inline 4 4-cycle, inline 4
Bore x stroke 84mmx90mm 84mmx90mm
Displacement 1995 cc 1995 cc
Compression ratio 10.5:1 (+/-0.15) 10.5:1 (+/-0.15)
Maximum power 108kW (EEC) / 148bhp (DIN)
at 6000rpm
102kW (EEC) / 142bhp (DIN)
at 6000rpm
Peak torque 177Nm (EEC) / 18kgm (DIN)
at 4500rpm
180Nm (EEC) / 18.7kgm (DIN)
at 4500rpm



Balancing

The engine is equipped with "counterrotating balancer-shafts". They rotate at twice the speed of the crankshaft and serve to balance the dynamic forces that are generated by the crankshaft. As a result these engines operate very smoothly at all speeds.

Overhead cams
driven by toothed belt
2
Inlet opens BTDC
closes ABDC 45°
Exhaust opens BBDC 42°
closes ATDC
Timing tappet clearance inlet (mm) 0.8
exhaust (mm) 0.8
Cold tappet clearances inlet (mm) 0.45+/-0.03
exhaust (mm) 0.50+/-0.03



Fuel delivery

Integrated (I.A.W. Multi-point) injection/ignition system (M.P.I.)

3 bar injection pressure.
Air filter with paper cartridge.
In-tank petrol pump.

Petrol metering system:
Speed density method evaluation of the quantity of
aspirated air; analytic method, by electronically
processing data from the engine speed sensor and
the air temperature and absolute pressure sensors
in the intake manifold (density).

Lamda sensor for metering optimisation.

Engine idling speed: 850+/-50 rpm

%CO emission when engine is idling:
above the catalytic converter with Lamda sensor disconnected: 0.7 +/-0.2
downstream from the catalytic converter with the Lambda sensor connected: <0.5


Ignition

Integrated (I.A.W.04J) fuel delivery-ignition system

Firing order 1-3-4-2
Reference advance at 850+/-50 rpm with hot engine
(coolant temperature > 75°): 10°+/-2°

Spark plugs: Fiat/Lancia 7FYSSR or Champion RN7YCC

Spark plug gap 0.85-0.95mm


Lubrication

Forced-feed gear pump with pressure relief valve.

Full-flow cartirdge oil filter.

Lubrication pressure at 100°C: 3.4 - 4.9 bar (3.5 - 5 kg/sq.cm)


Cooling system

The cooling system includes a radiator, centrifugal pump and expansion tank.

Bypass thermostat on the secondary re-circulation circuit.

Thermostatically controlled radiator fan.

Derived circuit for coolant, automatic transmission fluid (water/oil heat
exchanger fitted to gearbox).



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